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Tuesday, March 25, 2014

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Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

NY Times: Ripples From the Big Bang

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Space & Cosmos
Ripples From the Big Bang
MARCH 24, 2014

Ripples detected by the telescope Bicep2 represent, in theory, gravitational waves from the Big Bang. Credit BICEP2 Collaboration, via Associated Press

Continue reading the main story

Dennis Overbye

Continue reading the main story

CAMBRIDGE, MASS. — When scientists jubilantly announced last week that a telescope at the South Pole had detected ripples in space from the very beginning of time, the reverberations went far beyond the potential validation of astronomers’ most cherished model of the Big Bang.

It was the second time in less than two years that ideas thought to be radical just decades ago had been confirmed (at least so the optimists think) by experiment.

The first was the discovery of the Higgs boson, associated with an energy field that gives mass to other particles, announced in July 2012; physicists have said they will be studying the Higgs for the next 20 years at the Large Hadron Collider in Europe and perhaps at successor machines, hoping for a clue that will lead them beyond the Standard Model, which has ruled physics for the last half-century.

Now the South Pole telescope team, led by John M. Kovac of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, has presented physicists with another clue from what the Russian cosmologist Yakov B. Zeldovich once called the poor man’s particle accelerator — the universe itself. Photo

The lab housing the Bicep2 telescope near the South Pole. The telescope detected faint spiral patterns thought to be from the polarization of microwave radiation left by the Big Bang. The gravitational waves are long-sought markers for the theory of inflation. Credit Steffen Richter, Harvard University

The ripples detected by the telescope, Bicep2, were faint spiral patterns from the polarization of microwave radiation left over from the Big Bang. They are relics from when energies were a trillion times greater than the Large Hadron Collider can produce.

These gravitational waves are the long-sought markers for a theory called inflation, the force that put the bang in the Big Bang: an antigravitational swelling that began a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second after the cosmic clock started ticking. Scientists have long incorporated inflation into their standard model of the cosmos, but as with the existence of the Higgs, proving it had long been just a pipe dream.

Astronomers say they expect to be studying the gravitational waves from mountaintops, balloons and perhaps satellites for the next 20 years, hoping to gain insight into mysteries like dark matter and dark energy.

The cosmic Kahuna that now dangles before astronomers and physicists is understanding what caused inflation. What is this stuff that “turns gravity on its head” — as Alan Guth of M.I.T., a founder of inflation theory, has put it — and blew up the universe?

Antigravity may sound like a crazy science-fiction idea, but Einstein himself introduced the notion into physics. For him it was a fudge factor, known as the cosmological constant, that he inserted into his equations to account for the fact that the universe didn’t collapse.

He later abandoned the cosmological constant, calling it a mistake, but it was resurrected 15 years ago when astronomers discovered that the expansion of the universe was speeding up because of the mysterious force called dark energy. As with inflation, the repulsion is part of space itself: The bigger the universe gets, the more powerfully it pushes apart, resulting in an exponential runaway expansion.

The recently discovered Higgs field could also behave in this way. It was by playing mathematically with a version of the Higgs field in 1979 that Dr. Guth stumbled on the concept of inflation.

In the years since, dozens of versions of inflation have been proposed, like chaotic inflation, eternal inflation, slow-roll inflation, hybrid inflation, supersymmetric inflation and natural inflation, based on various kinds of fluctuating hypothetical fields. Photo

From left, Clement Pryke, James Bock, Robert Wilson, John Kovac, Chao-Lin Kuo, Andrei Linde and Alan Guth, who presented research last week on the inflation theory of the Big Bang. Credit Rick Friedman for The New York Times
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Assuming they are confirmed (and they have yet to be published in a peer-reviewed journal), the Bicep2 results eliminate most of these versions, including the Higgs, according to the Stanford physicist and inflation theorist Andrei Linde. But the winnowing could go on for decades.

Knowing inflation’s identity could be crucial if scientists are ever to unwind cosmic history back to the beginning, when they suspect the universe was ruled by a single unified force instead of the four distinct forces we know today: gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces.

The Bicep2 waves seem to date from the time that theorists suspect electromagnetism and the weak force divorced the strong force, gravity having already gone its own way, but Dr. Linde says that could be a coincidence.

If the chain of evidence and reasoning holds up, however, the Bicep2 waves do bear witness to the most fervently hoped-for unification of all, or what John A. Wheeler of Princeton once called “the fiery marriage” of Einstein’s gravity, which shapes the universe, and quantum theory, which governs the behavior of atoms inside it. The discovery suggests that that gravity, too, might ultimately be described by the same weird quantum rules as those that describe the other forces.

According to inflation theory, the Bicep2 waves are magnified images of the hypothetical particles called gravitons that would transmit gravity in quantum theory.

Imprinted on the cosmos when it was a subatomic quantum speck, they have been blown up a trillion trillion times and spread across the sky for inspection.

It would take a thousand trillion Large Hadron Colliders to make one in the lab, but the poor man’s particle accelerator has done it free of charge.

“The universe does what we can’t do,” said the physicist Lawrence M. Krauss of Arizona State, who recently wrote a paper on this with Frank Wilczek, a Nobel laureate and physics professor at M.I.T. Continue reading the main story
The Theory of Inflation

Astronomers have found evidence to support the theory of inflation, which explains how the universe expanded so uniformly and so quickly in the instant after the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago.

THE UNIVERSE is just under 14 billion years old. From our position in the Milky Way galaxy, we can observe a sphere — the visible universe — extending 14 billion light-years in every direction. But there's a mystery. Wherever we look, the universe has an even temperature.

NOT ENOUGH TIME The universe is not old enough for light to travel the 28 billion light-years from one side of the universe to the other, and there has not been enough time for scattered patches of hot and cold to mix into an even temperature.

DISTANT COFFEE At a smaller scale, imagine using a telescope to look a mile in one direction. You see a coffee cup, and from the amount of steam, you can estimate its temperature and how much it has cooled.

COFFEE EVERYWHERE Now turn around and look a mile in the other direction. You see a similar coffee cup, at exactly the same temperature. Coincidence? Maybe. But if you see a similar cup in every direction, you might want to look for another explanation.

STILL NOT ENOUGH TIME There has not been enough time to carry coffee cups from place to place before they get cold. But if all the coffee cups were somehow filled from a single coffee pot, all at the same time, that might explain their even temperature.

INFLATION solves this problem. The theory proposes that, less than a trillionth of a second after the Big Bang, the universe expanded faster than the speed of light. Tiny ripples in the violently expanding energy field eventually grew into the large-scale structures of the universe.

FLUCTUATION Astronomers have now detected evidence of these ancient fluctuations in swirls of polarized light in the cosmic background radiation, which is energy left over from the early universe. These are gravitational waves predicted by Einstein.

EXPANSION Returning to our coffee, imagine a single, central pot expanding faster than light and cooling to an even temperature as it expands. That is something like inflation. And the structure of the universe mirrors the froth and foam of the original pot.


While some theorists have questioned whether quantum theory can ever be applied to gravity, Dr. Wilczek said last week that the new discovery “means gravity is quantized.”

This telegram from the past does not give any details about what might be the right quantum gravity theory. One well-known effort, verging on old age and lacking experimental proof, is string theory.

But, as they say, there is more.

The gravitons themselves, theory says, are produced by the same process by which black holes leak. It is known as Hawking radiation, after Stephen Hawking of Cambridge University, the renowned black hole theorist, best-selling author and avatar of cosmic mystery who discovered it in a prodigious calculation in 1973.

Shortly thereafter, William Unruh, now at the University of British Columbia, showed that you didn’t need black holes to see this radiation, just acceleration in space. In this case, the role of the black hole you can’t get out of is played by the rapidly retreating horizon you can’t reach in the inflating universe.

Hawking radiation has been part of the physics firmament for decades; it’s the best-known prediction of quantum gravity.

“Now it seems that Hawking and Unruh were right!” said Max Tegmark, a cosmologist at M.I.T., noting that some physicists had wondered whether gravity obeyed the dice-playing quantum principles that Einstein had disdained. “Now we know that gravity is indeed quantized, involving graviton particles,” he added.

If the Bicep2 results are confirmed, and if astronomers agree that the ripples were gravitational waves from inflation, the discovery of Hawking radiation could win a Nobel Prize for Dr. Hawking.

Dr. Hawking, who recently lost $100 betting against the discovery of the Higgs boson, told the BBC that he had won a bet with an old friend, Neil G. Turok, director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, about whether the gravitational waves from inflation would be found. Dr. Turok said he was waiting for more data before conceding.

A version of this article appears in print on March 25, 2014, on page D1 of the New York edition with the headline: Ripples From the Big Bang. Order Reprints|Today's Paper|Subscribe

Saturday, March 22, 2014

It is called a tokamak -- old Soviet shorthand for a more precise and geometrical name, toroidalnaya kamera s aksialnym magnitnym polem, or 'toroidal chamber with an axial magnetic field.'

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Today's selection -- from "A Star in a Bottle" by Raffi Khatchadourian. Deep in a forest in Provence, France an international consortium of physicists and engineers are building an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, or ITER. When finished it will stand one hundred feet tall and weigh twenty-three thousand tons and will ionize hydrogen to achieve temperatures of over two hundred million degrees Celcius. The current formal target date for its first experiment is 2020, and its purpose is research to further understand the mysteries of the subatomic world. One byproduct could be new sources of energy:

"No natural phenomenon on Earth will be hotter. Like the sun, the cloud will go nuclear. The zooming hydrogen atoms, in a state of extreme kinetic excitement, will slam into one another, fusing to form a new element -- helium -- and with each atomic coupling explosive energy will be released: intense heat, gamma rays, X rays, a torrential flux of fast-moving neutrons propelled in every direction. There isn't a physical substance that could contain such a thing. Metals, plastics, ceramics, concrete, even pure diamond -- all would be obliterated on contact, and so the machine will hold the superheated cloud in a 'magnetic bottle,' using the largest system of superconducting magnets in the world. Just feet from the reactor's core, the magnets will be cooled to two hundred and sixty-nine degrees below zero, nearly the temperature of deep space. Caught in the grip of their titanic forces, the artificial earthbound sun will be suspended, under tremendous pressure, in the pristine nothingness of ITER's vacuum interior. ...

"ITER's design is based on an idea that Andrei Sakharov and another Russian physicist, Igor Tamm, sketched out in the nineteen-fifties. It is called a tokamak -- old Soviet shorthand for a more precise and geometrical name, toroidalnaya kamera s aksialnym magnitnym polem, or 'toroidal chamber with an axial magnetic field.' Sakharov's rough sketch depicted a doughnut-shaped vacuum chamber, or torus, ringed with electromagnets, and that is how ITER's core will look, too, once it is completed.

"The basic physics of thermonuclear energy is seductively simple. Fission produces energy by atomic fracture, fusion by tiny acts of atomic union. Every atom contains at least one proton, and all protons are positively charged, which means that they repel one another, like identical ends of a magnet. As protons are forced closer together, their electromagnetic opposition grows stronger. If electromagnetism were the only force in nature, the universe might exist only as single-proton hydrogen atoms keeping solitary company. But as protons get very near -- no farther than 0.000000000000001 metres -- another fundamental force, called the strong force, takes over. It is about a hundred times more powerful than electromagnetism, and it binds together everything inside the atomic nucleus.

"Getting protons close enough to cross this barrier and to allow the strong force to bind them requires tremendous energy. Every atom in the universe is moving, and the hotter something is the greater its kinetic agitation. Thermonuclear temperatures -- in the sun's core, fifteen million degrees -- are high enough to cause protons to slam together so forcefully that they are united by the strong force. Hydrogen nuclei slam together and form helium. Helium nuclei slam together and form beryllium. The atoms take on more protons, and become heavier. But, strangely, with each coupling a tiny amount of mass is lost, too. In 1905, Einstein demonstrated, with his most famous equation, E=mc2, that the missing mass is released in the form of energy as the nucleus is bound together. The quantity of energy is awesome -- in some cases, a thousand times what is needed to get atoms to bind in the first place. Without it, stars would not burn, and space would remain forever cold. ...

"At the super-high temperatures necessary for fusion, the hydrogen atoms would be unlike any of the common states of matter -- solids, liquids, or gases -- but would exist as ionized gas, or plasma, which would have unique electrical properties. Ninety-nine per cent of the visible universe is plasma. ... No matter the approach, the physicists reasoned that, as the plasma became denser, hotter, and longer-lasting, the conditions for fusion would eventually be met. But, because the point of the research was to build a commercial reactor, simply fusing atoms would not be enough. The plasma would have to produce at least as much energy as the physicists were pouring into it -- an atomic break even -- and then, beyond that, generate a net gain in energy. The ultimate goal, which the physicists called 'ignition,' is to excite the plasma to a state where it will heat itself like a star, requiring the barest effort to sustain and control."

"A Star in a Bottle"
Author: Raffi Khatchadourian
Publisher: The New Yorker
Date: March 3, 2014
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Friday, March 21, 2014

Hubble Peers at the Heart of NGC 5793 | NASA

Hubble Peers at the Heart of NGC 5793 | NASA


Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita/Mi ritrovai per una selva oscura,/Ché la diritta via era smaritta.” / “In the middle of the journey of our life/I found myself in a dark wood,/For I had lost the right path.” . . . “E quindi uscimmo a riveder le stele.” / “And so we came forth, and once again beheld the stars.”—Dante

Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976

Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.


Hardy Star Survives Supernova Blast | NASA

Hardy Star Survives Supernova Blast | NASA

Thursday, March 13, 2014

The Little Prince: Chapter XII On the Third Planet

The next planet was inhabited by a drunkard. This visit was a very brief one, but it plunged the little prince into a deep depression.
"What are you doing there?" 
he asked the drunkard, whom he found sunk in silence before a collection of empty bottles and a collection of full ones.
replied the drunkard, with a gloomy expression.
"Why are you drinking?"
the little prince asked.
"To forget,"
replied the drunkard.
"To forget what?"
inquired the little prince, who was already feeling sorry for him.
"To forget that I'm ashamed,"
confessed the drunkard, hanging his head.
"What are you ashamed of?"
inquired the little prince, who wanted to help.
"Of drinking!"
concluded the drunkard, withdrawing into silence for good. And the little prince went on his way, puzzled.
"Grown-ups are certainly very very strange,"
he said to himself as he continued on his journey.

Monday, March 10, 2014

Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976

Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

Saturday, March 8, 2014



"I normally love the winter but this year, it's enough. Please let it melt."

DART WESTPHAL, a New Yorker who paid $100 more for heat this February than last even though he turned down the thermostat at his house in the Bronx.